Tourmalines of the povondraite - (oxy)dravite series from the cap rock of meta-evaporite in Alto Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia
An almost continuous series of Al-deficient ferrian tourmalines, corresponding mainly to povondraite - 'oxy-dravite' - dravite solid solutions, was found at the type locality of povondraite (Alto Chapare, Cochabamba Department, Bolivia). These tourmalines form a component of crystalline crusts overgrowing silicate 'xenoliths' or loose crystals enclosed in the meta-evaporite cap rock. Tourmaline crystals have highly variable morphology, correlated with chemical composition from acicular through prismatic to stubby. Some crystals are discontinuously zoned with Al-enriched cores. Tourmalines are typically sodic with very low Ca and low X-site vacancy. On the other hand, Fe-rich, Al-poor tourmalines have elevated K content (up to 0.6 apfu) in a trend toward a new tourmaline species. All tourmalines are magnesian (Mg = 1.32-2.67 apfu) and display extreme compositional range. The most prominent substitution of Fe3+ (0.31-7.58 apfu) for Al (0.03-5.81 apfu) is represented by the exchange vector Fe3+(Al)-1. Fe-rich members form a transitions between povondraite [NaFe33+ (Mg2Fe43+) Si6O18 (BO3)3 (OH)3 O] and hypothetical tourmaline [NaFe33+ (Mg1 Fe53+) Si6O18 (BO3)3 ((OH)2 O)O]. In accordance with this substitution mechanism, the OHcalc ranging from 1.78-3.52 pfu is positively correlated with Mg and inversely proportional to the sum of R3+ (= Al + Fe3+). Incorporation of Ti4+ in tourmaline solid solution is coupled with a decrease of OH and an increase of O. The highly variable Ti (0.0-0.56 apfu) negatively correlates with the sum of R3+. However, there also is an excellent negative correlation (R = 0.99) among R3+ and Mg+Ti. This is consistent with exchange vectors R3+O (Mg OH)-1 and TiOR3+-1(OH)-1. Such substitutions suggest a new possible Ti-bearing tourmaline Na(TiR3+2)(Mg2R3+4)Si6O18 (BO3)3 ((OH)2O)O. The povondraite - (oxy)dravite solid solutions are known in meta-evaporite tourmalines but only the tourmalines from the Bolivian Alto Chapare attained such an extensive compositional range.
SNIP (Scopus, 2016): 0.760
IF (ISI, 2016): 0.609
5 YEAR IF (ISI, 2016): 1.028
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