Geology and evolution of pegmatite-hosted U-Th ± REE-Y-Nb Mineralization, Kulyk, Eagle, and Karin Lakes region, Wollaston Domain, northern Saskatchewan, Canada: examples of the dual role of extreme fractionation and hybridization processes
In northern Saskatchewan, granitic pegmatites intruded Early Paleoproterozoic Wollaston Group metasedimentary rocks and interfolded granitoids that unconformably overlie Late Archean gneisses, all of which have been subjected to deformation during the protracted 1.86 to 1.77 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny. The U-Th ± REE-Y-Nb pegmatite intrusions and fracture-controlled U mineralization characterize the occurrences at Kulyk Lake, Eagle Lake, and Karin Lake properties in the Wollaston Domain. The pegmatites are moderately to highly evolved, ranging from mineralogically simple to complex types. These are rare-earth element class, NYF pegmatites (Nb-Y-F), and are interpreted to have formed in a late syn- to post-collisional tectonic setting.
The complex-type pegmatites are hybridized, due to metasomatic interaction with the host rocks and therefore are locally crudely zoned. Saturation of U-Th ± REE-Y-Nb occurred at the margins (predominantly border and wall zones) of the hybridized pegmatites. Partial melts were generated at depth, and then coalesced as they intruded to higher structural levels during exhumation of this orogen. This agrees with U-Pb geochronology of these granitic pegmatites, which constrains them between peak- and late-metamorphic events of the Trans-Hudson Orogeny. The age constraints and relatively high-T partial melting conditions (~750 °C) confine the pegmatite melt-forming conditions to an early deformational event (1835-1805 Ma) that was overprinted by high-T retrograde metamorphism at c. 1770 Ma. Field relationships, textures and geochemical variations provide strong evidence that the U, Th, REE ± Y- Nb phases in the studied pegmatites were progressively enriched through extreme fractionation effects of which are evident throughout multiple pegmatite injections. In addition, volatiles and other fluxing components further enriched U, Th, REE ± Y- Nb during complex hybridization reactions between pegmatite melt and wallrock, up to the final stages of pegmatite emplacement.
SNIP (Scopus, 2015): 0.700
IF (ISI, 2015): 1.326
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